Redating the exodus and conquest bimson

This stele puts a terminus ante quem date of 1210 BC for the exodus (Mc Carter 1992, 132). There are two types of execration texts from the 12th Dynasty of Egypt. There is an interesting place named in Joshua 15:9 and , "well of waters of Nephtoah," that may be the Hebrew name of Merneptah. "A Canaanite at Ugarit." Israel Exploration Journal 13. The well which is probably anachronistically named after Merneptah would be near Jerusalem.

The word "Israel" here is written in Egyptian with the determinative for people rather than land (ANET 1969, 378 note 18). There are the rulers of Shechem, Hazor, Ashkelon, Laish, Tyre, and Pella ('Apiru-Anu). The tribes of 'Arqata and Byblos are mentioned (ANET 1969, 329). Jerusalem is named, but there is no mention of Israel. Both scholars Yurco and Rainey agree that these battle scenes are from Merneptah's reign (Yurco 1991, 61; Rainey 1992, 73-4; Hess 1993, 134). Before the discovery of the Merneptah stele scholars placed the date of the exodus and entry into Canaan much later.

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